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The current issue: September/October 2017 Ampersand By B.
While the first observance of a Women's Day was held on February 28, 1909 in New York, March 8 was suggested by the 1910 International Woman's Conference to become an "International Woman's Day." After women gained suffrage in Soviet Russia in 1917, March 8 became a national holiday there.
Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date.
But in the morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… all went out into the streets." Following the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, but it was a working day until 1965.
The earlier scribes, like Esdras himself, belonged to the class of priests and Levites ( Ezra ; Nehemiah 8:7, 13 ; 2 Chronicles ) who were originally the official interpreters of the Law, but unlike other priestly duties, the study and exposition of Holy Writ could be engaged in by pious laymen, and thus little by little the scribal profession became differentiated from the priesthood, while the latter remained chiefly occupied with the ever-growing sacrificial and ritualistic functions.
When under Antiochus Epiphanes Hellenism threatened to overthrow the Jewish religion, the scribes joined the party of the zealous Assideans ( 1 Maccabees , 13 ), who were ready to die for their faith (see account of the martyrdom of the scribe Eleazar, 2 Maccabees -31 ), while not a few aristocratic members of the priesthood favoured the Hellenistic tendencies.
This description doubtless applies to the subsequent scribes of that period.
They were pious men who through love of the Divine law occupied themselves in collecting, editing, and studying the sacred literature of the Hebrews and in explaining it to the people.
What this meant is set forth in verse 10: "For Esdras had prepared his heart to teach in Israel the commandments and judgment".
This resulted in a certain opposition between the two classes; the scribes, through their devotion to the Law, acquired great influence with the people while the priesthood lost much of its prestige.
As a natural consequence, the scribes as a class became narrow, haughty and exclusive.
(Greek grammateis, nomodidaschaloi , teachers of the law).
In the New-Testament period the scribes were the professional interpreters of the Law in the Jewish synagogues.